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Guides
Assay
An assay is a procedure where a property or concentration of an analyte is measured. Numerous types of assays exist, such as an antigen capture assay, bioassay, immunoassay, microbiological assay, stem cell assay to name a few.
Biomarker
A biomarker is a substance used as an indicator of a biologic state. It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.
Biomaterial
A biomaterial is any material, natural or man-made, that comprises whole or part of a living structure or biomedical device which performs, auguments, or replaces a natural function'. A biomaterial is essentially a material that is used and adapted for a medical application. Biomaterials can have a benign function, such as being used for a heart valve, or may be bioactive . Used for a more interactive purposes such as implants.
C diff
C diff stands for Clostridium difficile or C. difficile and is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Clostridia are anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). C. difficile is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, a severe infection of the colon, often resulting from eradication of the normal gut flora by antibiotics. The C. difficile bacteria, which naturally reside in the body, become overgrown.
C difficile
C difficile stands for Clostridium difficile or C diff and is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Clostridia are anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). C difficile is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, a severe infection of the colon, often resulting from eradication of the normal gut flora by antibiotics. The C difficile bacteria, which naturally reside in the body, become overgrown.
Catheter
A catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. Catheters enable the drainage or injection of fluids or access by surgical instruments.
Chromatography
Chromatography is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. Chromatography involves passing a mixture dissolved in a 'mobile phase' through a stationary phase, which separates the analyte to be measured from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated. Analytical chromatography seeks to measure the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture.
Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile, which is also known as C. difficile or C diff , is a species of Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Clostridia are anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). C. difficile is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, a severe infection of the colon, often resulting from eradication of the normal gut flora by antibiotics. The C. difficile bacteria, which naturally reside in the body, become overgrown.
Compliance software
Compliance means conforming with stated requirements. At an organizational level, it is achieved through management processes which identify the applicable requirements (defined for example in laws, regulations, contracts, strategies and policies), assess the state of compliance, assess the risks and potential costs of non-compliance against the projected expenses to achieve compliance, and hence prioritize, fund and initiate any corrective actions deemed necessary. Compliance software offers various ways of monitoring and managing compliance issues within an organisation or between organisations.
Computed tomography
Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging method that employs tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. CT produces a volume of data which can be manipulated, through a process known as windowing, in order to demonstrate various structures based on their ability to block the X-ray/Rontgen beam. Modern CT scanners allow the volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D) representations of structures.
Contract manufacture
Contract manufacture is a service offered by an organisation that manufactures components or products for another hiring firm. Types of contract manufacturing in the medical sector include CNC machining, complex assembly, production of medical devices and equipment, packaging and forming.
Decontamination
Decontamination is a combination of processes, including cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization, that can be used to render reusable surgical instruments safe for further use. Efficient decontamination is a key factor in countering healthcare associated infections.
DICOM
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. The standard includes a file format definition and a network communications protocol. The communication protocol is an application protocol that uses TCP/IP to communicate between systems. DICOM files can be exchanged between two entities that are capable of receiving image and patient data in DICOM format. DICOM enables the integration of scanners, servers, workstations, printers, and network hardware from multiple manufacturers into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).
DNA sequencing
The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. Sequencing methods have evolved from relatively laborious gel-based procedures to modern automated protocols based on dye labelling and detection in capillary electrophoresis that permit rapid large-scale sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. DNA sequencing has accelerated biological research and discovery.
Drug delivery
Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans. Drug delivery technologies that modify drug release profiles, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety and patient convenience and compliance. Most common methods of delivery include the non-invasive peroral (through the mouth), topical (skin), transmucosal (nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal) and inhalation routes.
Drug eluting stent
A drug eluting stent (DES) is a coronary stent (a scaffold) placed into narrowed, diseased coronary arteries that slowly releases a drug to block cell proliferation. This prevents fibrosis that, together with clots (thrombus), could otherwise block the stented artery, a process called restenosis. The stent is usually placed within the coronary artery by an Interventional cardiologist during an angioplasty procedure.
EHR
An EHR or electronic health record is an individual patient's medical record in digital format. Electronic health record systems co-ordinate the storage and retrieval of individual records with the aid of computers. EHRs are typically accessed on a computer, often across a network. An EHR may be made up of electronic medical records (EMRs) from many locations and/or sources. Among the many forms of data often included in EMRs are patient demographics, medical history, medicine and allergy lists, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images and billing records.
Electronic Data Capture
An Electronic Data Capture (EDC) system is a computerised system that collects clinical data in electronic format and is typically used to support human clinical trials. Typically, EDC systems provide: A graphical user interface component for data entry A validation component to check user data A reporting tool for analysis of the collected data EDC systems are used in te pharmaceutical, medical device and biotechnology industries in all aspects of clinical research. EDC oftens increases the data accuracy and reduces the time to collect data for studies of drugs and medical devices.
Electronic health record
An electronic health record (EHR) refers to an individual patient's medical record in digital format. Electronic health record systems co-ordinate the storage and retrieval of individual records with the aid of computers. EHRs are typically accessed via a computer, often across a network. A EHR may be made up of electronic medical records (EMRs) from many locations and/or sources. Among the many forms of data often included in EMRs are patient demographics, medical history, medicine and allergy lists, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images and billing records.
ELISA
A sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody. It is often used as a diagnostic test to determine exposure to a particular infectious agent, such as the AIDS virus, by identifying antibodies present in a blood sample.
Endoscope
An endoscope is an instrument used to carry out a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that is used to assess the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a tube into the body. The instrument may have a rigid or flexible tube and not only provide an image for visual inspection and photography, but also enable taking biopsies and retrieval of foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery, and patients may receive conscious sedation so they do not have to be consciously aware of the discomfort.
Endoscopy
Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an instrument called an endoscope. Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that is used to assess the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a tube into the body. The instrument may have a rigid or flexible tube and not only provide an image for visual inspection and photography, but also enable taking biopsies and retrieval of foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery, and patients may receive conscious sedation so they do not have to be consciously aware of the discomfort.
Enterprise software
Enterprise software is intended to solve an enterprise problem (rather than a departmental problem). Due to the cost of building what is often proprietary software, only large enterprises attempt to build such enterprise software that models the entire business enterprise and is the core IT system of governing the enterprise and the core of communication within the enterprise. As business and healthcare enterprises have similar departments and systems in common, enterprise software is often available as a suite of programs that have attached enterprise development tools to customize the programs to the specific enterprise.
Glucose monitoring
Blood glucose monitoring refers to the ongoing measurement of blood sugar (glucose). Monitoring can be done at any time using a portable device called a glucometer.
Graft
Skin grafting is a type of medical grafting involving the transplantation of skin. The transplanted tissue is called a skin graft. Skin grafting is often used to treat: - Extensive wounding or trauma - Burns - Areas of prior infection with extensive skin loss - Specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material from the patient's own body, an artificial, synthetic, or natural substitute. Bone grafting is used to repair bone fractures that are complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly.
Haematology
Haematology concerns the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Haematology, which includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases, is a distinct subspecialty of internal medicine, separate from but overlapping with the subspecialty of medical oncology.
Hospital Information System
A hospital information system (HIS) which is a comprehensive, integrated information system designed to manage the administrative, financial and clinical aspects of a hospital. HIS encompasses paper-based information processing as well as data processing machines. HIS often features a number of software components with specialty-specific extensions as well as of a large variety of sub-systems in medical specialties ( Laboratory Information System, Radiology Information System).
ICD
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. The device is programmed to detect cardiac arrhythmia and correct it by delivering a jolt of electricity.
IGRT
IGRT stands for Image-guided radiation therapy which is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilising the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan. The patient is localised in the treatment room in the same position as planned from the reference imaging dataset.
Image-guided radiation therapy
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilising the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan. The patient is localised in the treatment room in the same position as planned from the reference imaging dataset.
Implant
An implant is a medical device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. Some implants contain electronics such as artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, such as subcutaneous drug delivery devices in the form of implantable pills or drug-eluting stents. Orthopaedic implants are devices that are placed over or within bones to hold a fracture reduction. A bio-implant may be defined as a biomaterial surgically implanted in a person's body to replace damaged tissue.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. The device is programmed to detect cardiac arrhythmia and correct it by delivering a jolt of electricity.
Infection control
Infection control is a discipline focused on preventing the spread of infections within the health-care setting. Infection control concerns itself both with prevention (hand hygiene/hand washing, cleaning/disinfection/sterilization, vaccination, surveillance) and with investigation and management of demonstrated or suspected spread of infection within a health-care setting.
Laboratory Information Management System
A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) is computer software that is used in the laboratory for the management of samples, laboratory users, instruments, standards and other laboratory functions such as invoicing, plate management, and work flow automation. A LIMS and a Laboratory Information System (LIS) perform similar functions. LIMS are generally targeted toward environmental, research or commercial analysis, such as pharmaceutical or life science applications, and LIS are targeted toward the clinical market.
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualise the structure and function of the body.MRI provides detailed images of the body in any plane. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body.
Mass spectrometer
A mass spectrometer is an instrument which uses an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. A sample undergoes chemical fragmentation, thereby forming charged particles (ions). The ratio of charge to mass of the particles is calculated by passing them through electric and magnetic fields in a mass spectrometer.
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. A sample undergoes chemical fragmentation, thereby forming charged particles (ions). The ratio of charge to mass of the particles is calculated by passing them through electric and magnetic fields in a mass spectrometer.
Medical record
A medical record or health record is a systematic documentation of a patient's medical history and care. The term 'Medical record' is used both for the physical folder for each individual patient and for the body of information which comprises the total of each patient's health history. Medical records are personal documents and there are many ethical and legal issues surrounding them such as the degree of third-party access and appropriate storage and disposal. Medical records are traditionally compiled and stored by health care providers but personal health records maintained by individual patients are becoming increasingly popular.
Microarray
Different kinds of biological assays are called microarrays.
Microscope
A microscope is an insturment used to view samples or objects. There are three major branches of microscopy: optical, electron and scanning probe microscopy. Optical and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation interacting with the subject of study, and the subsequent collection of this scattered radiation in order to build up an image. Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface or object of interest.
Microscopy
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples or objects. There are three major branches of microscopy: optical, electron and scanning probe microscopy. Optical and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation interacting with the subject of study, and the subsequent collection of this scattered radiation in order to build up an image. Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface or object of interest.
MRI
MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging which is a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualise the structure and function of the body. MRI provides detailed images of the body in any plane. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body.
MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for difficult-to-treat infections in humans. MRSA is also sometimes referred to as multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins. MRSA is a resistant variation of the common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.
PACS
PACS stands for picture archiving and communication systems which are computers or networks dedicated to the storage, retrieval, distribution and presentation of medical images. The images are stored in an independent format. The most common format for image storage is DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine).
Patient safety
Patient safety is a healthcare discipline which addresses the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical errors that often lead to adverse healthcare events.
Picture archiving and communication systems
Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are computers or networks dedicated to the storage, retrieval, distribution and presentation of medical images. The images are stored in an independent format. The most common format for image storage is DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine).
Practice management
Practice management software deals with the day-to-day operations of a medical practice. Practice management software allows users to capture patient demographics, schedule appointments, maintain lists of insurance payers, perform billing tasks, and generate reports. Practice management software is often connected to electronic medical records (EMR) systems.
Radiology information system
A radiology information system (RIS) is a computerised database used by radiology departments to store, manipulate and distribute patient radiological data and imagery. The system generally consists of patient tracking and scheduling, result reporting and image tracking capabilities.
Radiosurgery
Radiosurgery, also known as stereotactic radiotherapy, is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant conditions, arteriovenous malformations (AVM's), and some functional disorders by means of directed beams of ionizing radiation. There are many nervous diseases for which conventional surgical treatment is difficult or has many damaging consequences for the patient because arteries, nerves, and other vital structures can be harmed.
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells. Radiotherapy, which may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment, is also used as palliative treatment or as therapeutic treatment. Radiotherapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.
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